June 22, 2008

Portable DBA: Oracle

This post contains examples of a number of the most commonly performed DBA activities. They are all listed in alphabetical order by the command being used, and then the activity being performed.

One note of caution: if you don’t know what a specific keyword of a command does, don’t use
it without checking out its purpose. This is a reference for those who understand what something
like cascade constraints means when associated with a drop table command.

alter cluster
ALTER CLUSTER pub_cluster SIZE 4K;
ALTER CLUSTER pub_cluster DEALLOCATE UNUSED KEEP 1M;

alter database: Alter a Data File
ALTER DATABASE DATAFILE 4 OFFLINE;
ALTER DATABASE DATAFILE '/opt/oracle/datafile/users01.dbf' OFFLINE;
ALTER DATABASE DATAFILE '/opt/oracle/datafile/users01.dbf'
RESIZE 100m;
ALTER DATABASE DATAFILE '/opt/oracle/datafile/users01.dbf'
AUTOEXTEND ON NEXT 100M MAXSIZE 1000M;
ALTER DATABASE DATAFILE 4 END BACKUP;

alter database: Alter a Tempfile
ALTER DATABASE TEMPFILE 4 RESIZE 100M;
ALTER DATABASE TEMPFILE 4
AUTOEXTEND ON NEXT 100M MAXSIZE 1000M;
ALTER DATABASE TEMPFILE 4 DROP INCLUDING DATAFILES;
ALTER DATABASE TEMPFILE 4 OFFLINE;

alter database: ARCHIVELOG Mode Commands
ALTER DATABASE ARCHIVELOG;
ALTER DATABASE NOARCHIVELOG;
ALTER DATABASE FORCE LOGGING;
ALTER DATABASE CLEAR LOGFILE '/opt/oracle/logfiles/redo01.rdo';
ALTER DATABASE CLEAR UNARCHIVED LOGFILE
'/opt/oracle/logfiles/redo01.rdo';
ALTER DATABASE ADD SUPPLEMENTAL LOG DATA;
ALTER DATABASE ADD SUPPLEMENTAL LOG DATA (PRIMARY KEY, UNIQUE);
ALTER DATABASE DROP SUPPLEMENTAL LOG DATA;
alter database: Control File Operations
ALTER DATABASE BACKUP CONTROLFILE TO TRACE;
ALTER DATABASE BACKUP CONTROLFILE TO TRACE
AS '/opt/oracle/logfile_backup/backup_logfile.trc'
REUSE RESETLOGS;
ALTER DATABASE BACKUP CONTROLFILE TO
'/opt/oracle/logfile_backup/backup_logfile.ctl';

alter database: Create a Data File
ALTER DATABASE CREATE DATAFILE
'/opt/oracle/datafile/users01.dbf' AS '/opt/oracle/datafile/users01.dbf';
ALTER DATABASE CREATE DATAFILE 4
AS '/opt/oracle/datafile/users01.dbf';
ALTER DATABASE CREATE DATAFILE
'/opt/oracle/datafile/users01.dbf' AS NEW;

alter database: Datafile Offline/Online
See alter database: Alter a Data File
alter database: Logfile Commands
ALTER DATABASE ADD LOGFILE GROUP 2
('/opt/oracle/logfiles/redo02a.rdo', '/opt/oracle/logfiles/redo02b.rdo')
SIZE 300M REUSE;
ALTER DATABASE ADD LOGFILE MEMBER
'/opt/oracle/logfiles/redo02c.rdo'
to GROUP 2;
ALTER DATABASE ADD LOGFILE thread 3 GROUP 2
('/opt/oracle/logfiles/redo02a.rdo', '/opt/oracle/logfiles/redo02b.rdo')
SIZE 300M REUSE;
ALTER DATABASE DROP LOGFILE GROUP 3;
ALTER DATABASE DROP LOGFILE MEMBER '/opt/oracle/logfiles/redo02b.rdo';
alter database: Mount and Open the Database
ALTER DATABASE MOUNT;
ALTER DATABASE OPEN;

alter database: Move or Rename a Database File or Online Redo Log
NOTE
The database must be mounted to rename or move online redo logs.
The database must be mounted or the data files taken offline to move
database data files.
ALTER DATABASE RENAME FILE '/ora/datafile/oldfile.dbf' TO '/ora/datafile/newfile.dbf';
alter database: Open the Database Read-Only
ALTER DATABASE OPEN READ ONLY;
alter database: Open the Database with resetlogs
ALTER DATABASE OPEN RESETLOGS;
alter database: Recover the Database

alter function: Recompile a Function
ALTER FUNCTION my_function COMPILE;

alter index: Allocate and Deallocate Extents
ALTER INDEX ix_my_tab ALLOCATE EXTENT;
ALTER INDEX ix_my_tab ALLOCATE EXTENT
DATAFILE '/ora/datafile/newidx.dbf';
ALTER INDEX ix_my_tab DEALLOCATE UNUSED;
ALTER INDEX ix_my_tab DEALLOCATE UNUSED KEEP 100M;
alter index: Miscellaneous Maintenance
ALTER INDEX ix_my_tab PARALLEL 3;
ALTER INDEX ix_my_tab NOPARALLEL;
ALTER INDEX ix_my_tab NOCOMPRESS;
ALTER INDEX ix_my_tab COMPRESS;
alter index: Modify Logging Attributes
ALTER INDEX ix_my_tab LOGGING;
ALTER INDEX ix_my_tab NOLOGGING;
alter index: Modify Storage and Physical Attributes
ALTER INDEX ix_my_tab PCTFREE 10 PCTUSED 40 INITRANS 5
STORAGE (NEXT 100k MAXEXTENTS UNLIMITED FREELISTS 10
BUFFER_POOL KEEP);

alter index: Partition – Add Hash Index Partition
ALTER INDEX ix_my_tab ADD PARTITION
TABLESPACE NEWIDXTBS;
alter index: Partition – Coalesce Partition
ALTER INDEX ix_my_tab COALESCE PARTITION;
alter index: Partition – Drop Partition
ALTER INDEX ix_my_tab DROP PARTITION ix_my_tab_jan_04;
alter index: Partition – Modify Default Attributes
ALTER INDEX ix_my_tab MODIFY DEFAULT ATTRIBUTES
FOR PARTITION ix_my_tab_jan_04
PCTFREE 10 PCTUSED 40 TABLESPACE newidxtbs
NOLOGGING COMPRESS;
alter index: Partition – Modify Partition
ALTER INDEX ix_my_tab MODIFY PARTITION ix_my_tab_jan_04
DEALLOCATE UNUSED KEEP 100M;
ALTER INDEX ix_my_tab MODIFY PARTITION ix_my_tab_jan_04
ALLOCATE EXTENT SIZE 100m;
ALTER INDEX ix_my_tab MODIFY PARTITION ix_my_tab_jan_04
PCTUSED 40 STORAGE(NEXT 50m) NOLOGGING;
alter index: Partition – Modify Subpartition
ALTER INDEX ix_my_tab MODIFY SUBPARTITION ix_my_tab_jan_04
DEALLOCATE UNUSED KEEP 100M;
ALTER INDEX ix_my_tab MODIFY SUBPARTITION ix_my_tab_jan_04
ALLOCATE EXTENT SIZE 100m;
ALTER INDEX ix_my_tab MODIFY SUBPARTITION ix_my_tab_jan_04
PCTUSED 40 STORAGE(NEXT 50m) NOLOGGING;
alter index: Partition – Rename
ALTER INDEX ix_my_tab RENAME
PARTITION ix_my_tab_jan_04 TO ix_my_tab_jan_05;
ALTER INDEX ix_my_tab RENAME
SUBPARTITION ix_my_tab_jan_04 TO ix_my_tab_jan_05;
alter index: Partition – Split
ALTER INDEX ix_my_tab SPLIT PARTITION ix_my_tab_jan_05
AT ('15-JAN-05') INTO PARTITION ix_my_tab_jan_05a
TABLESPACE myidxtbs
STORAGE (INITIAL 100m NEXT 50M FREELISTS 5);

alter index: Rebuild Nonpartitioned Indexes
ALTER INDEX ix_my_tab REBUILD ONLINE;
ALTER INDEX ix_my_tab REBUILD ONLINE
TABLESPACE idx_tbs_new PCTFREE 1
STORAGE (INITIAL 50M NEXT 50m FREELISTS 5)
COMPUTE STATISTICS PARALLEL 0;
alter index: Rebuild Partitions
ALTER INDEX ix_my_tab
REBUILD PARTITION ix_my_tab_jan_04 ONLINE;
ALTER INDEX ix_my_tab
REBUILD SUBPARTITION ix_my_tab_jan_04 ONLINE
PCTFREE 1 STORAGE (INITIAL 50M NEXT 50m FREELISTS 5)
COMPUTE STATISTICS PARALLEL 0;
alter index: Rename
ALTER INDEX ix_my_tab RENAME TO 'ix_my_tab_01';
alter index: Shrink
ALTER INDEX ix_my_tab SHRINK SPACE;
ALTER INDEX ix_my_tab SHRINK SPACE COMPACT CASCADE;

alter materialized view: Allocate and Deallocate Extents
ALTER MATERIALIZED VIEW mv_my_tab ALLOCATE EXTENT;
ALTER MATERIALIZED VIEW mv_my_tab DEALLOCATE UNUSED;
alter materialized view: Miscellaneous
ALTER MATERIALIZED VIEW mv_my_tab COMPRESS;
ALTER MATERIALIZED VIEW mv_my_tab PARALLEL 3;
ALTER MATERIALIZED VIEW mv_my_tab NOLOGGING;
ALTER MATERIALIZED VIEW mv_my_tab LOGGING;
ALTER MATERIALIZED VIEW mv_my_tab CONSIDER FRESH;
ALTER MATERIALIZED VIEW mv_my_tab ENABLE QUERY REWRITE;
alter materialized view: Physical Attributes and Storage
ALTER MATERIALIZED VIEW mv_my_tab
PCTFREE 5 PCTUSED 60
STORAGE (NEXT 100m FREELISTS 5);
alter materialized view: Refresh
ALTER MATERIALIZED VIEW mv_my_tab REFRESH FAST;
ALTER MATERIALIZED VIEW mv_my_tab REFRESH COMPLETE;
ALTER MATERIALIZED VIEW mv_my_tab REFRESH FAST ON DEMAND;
ALTER MATERIALIZED VIEW mv_my_tab REFRESH FAST ON COMMIT;
ALTER MATERIALIZED VIEW mv_my_tab REFRESH COMPLETE
START WITH sysdate;
ALTER MATERIALIZED VIEW mv_my_tab REFRESH COMPLETE
START WITH sysdate NEXT sysdate+1/24;
alter materialized view: Shrink Space
ALTER MATERIALIZED VIEW mv_my_tab SHRINK SPACE;
ALTER MATERIALIZED VIEW mv_my_tab
SHRINK SPACE COMPACT CASCADE;
alter materialized view log: Add Components
ALTER MATERIALIZED VIEW LOG ON my_tab ADD PRIMARY KEY;
ALTER MATERIALIZED VIEW LOG ON my_tab ADD (col1, col2)
INCLUDING NEW VALUES;
ALTER MATERIALIZED VIEW LOG ON my_tab ADD (col1, col2),
ROWID, SEQUENCE INCLUDING NEW VALUES;
alter materialized view log: Allocate and Deallocate Extents
ALTER MATERIALIZED VIEW LOG ON my_tab ALLOCATE EXTENT;
ALTER MATERIALIZED VIEW LOG ON my_tab DEALLOCATE UNUSED;
alter materialized view log: Miscellaneous
ALTER MATERIALIZED VIEW LOG ON my_tab PARALLEL 3;
ALTER MATERIALIZED VIEW LOG ON my_tab NOLOGGING;
ALTER MATERIALIZED VIEW LOG ON my_tab SHRINK SPACE;
alter materialized view log: Physical Attributes and Storage
ALTER MATERIALIZED VIEW LOG ON my_tab
PCTFREE 5 PCTUSED 60
STORAGE (NEXT 100m FREELISTS 5);

alter package: Compile
ALTER PACKAGE pk_my_package COMPILE;
ALTER PACKAGE pk_my_package COMPILE SPECIFICATION;
ALTER PACKAGE pk_my_package COMPILE BODY;

alter procedure: Compile
ALTER PROCEDURE pk_my_package COMPILE;

alter profile: Miscellaneous
ALTER ROLE my_role IDENTIFIED BY password;
ALTER ROLE my_role NOT IDENTIFIED;
alter profile: Modify Limits (Password)
ALTER PROFILE my_profile LIMIT FAILED_LOGIN_ATTEMPTS=3;
ALTER PROFILE my_profile LIMIT PASSWORD_LOCK_TIME=2/24;
ALTER PROFILE my_profile LIMIT PASSWORD_GRACE_TIME=5;
ALTER PROFILE my_profile LIMIT PASSWORD_LIFETIME=60;
ALTER PROFILE my_profile LIMIT PASSWORD_REUSE_TIME=365 PASSWORD_REUSE_MAX=3;
alter profile: Modify Limits (Resource)
ALTER PROFILE my_profile LIMIT SESSIONS_PER_CPU=10;
ALTER PROFILE my_profile LIMIT CONNECT_TIME=1000;
ALTER PROFILE my_profile LIMIT IDLE_TIME=60;
ALTER PROFILE my_profile LIMIT PRIVATE_SGA=1000000;

alter rollback segment: Online/Offline
ALTER ROLLBACK SEGMENT rbs01 OFFLINE;
ALTER ROLLBACK SEGMENT rbs01 ONLINE;
alter rollback segment: Shrink
ALTER ROLLBACK SEGMENT rbs01 SHRINK;
ALTER ROLLBACK SEGMENT rbs01 SHRINK TO 100M;
alter rollback segment: storage Clause
ALTER ROLLBACK SEGMENT rbs01 STORAGE(NEXT 50M OPTIMAL 100M);

alter sequence: Miscellaneous
ALTER SEQUENCE my_seq INCREMENT BY –5;
ALTER SEQUENCE my_seq INCREMENT BY 1 MAXVALUE 50000 CYCLE;
ALTER SEQUENCE my_seq NOMAXVALUE;
ALTER SEQUENCE my_seq CACHE ORDER;
ALTER SEQUENCE my_seq INCREMENT BY 1
MINVALUE 1 MAXVALUE 500 CYCLE;

alter session:
Enable and Disable Parallel Operations
ALTER SESSION ENABLE PARALLEL DML PARALLEL 3;
ALTER SESSION ENABLE PARALLEL DDL;
ALTER SESSION DISABLE PARALLEL QUERY;
alter session: Resumable Space Management
ALTER SESSION ENABLE RESUMABLE TIMEOUT 3600;
ALTER SESSION DISABLE RESUMABLE;
alter session: Set Session Parameters
ALTER SESSION SET nls_date_format='MM/DD/YYYY HH24:MI:SS';
ALTER SESSION SET sort_area_size=10000000;
ALTER SESSION SET query_rewrite_enabled=TRUE;
ALTER SESSION SET resumable_timeout=3600;
ALTER SESSION SET skip_unusable_indexes=TRUE;
ALTER SESSION SET SQL_TRACE=TRUE;
alter system:
Logfile and Archive Logfile Management
ALTER SYSTEM SWITCH LOGFILE;
ALTER SYSTEM ARCHIVE LOG START;
ALTER SYSTEM ARCHIVE LOG STOP;
ALTER SYSTEM ARCHIVE LOG ALL;
ALTER SYSTEM ARCHIVE LOG THREAD 1 ALL;
ALTER SYSTEM ARCHIVE LOG ALL TO 'C:\oracle\allarch';
alter system: Set System Parameters
ALTER SYSTEM SET db_cache_size=325M
COMMENT='This change is to add more memory to the system'
SCOPE=BOTH;
ALTER SYSTEM SET COMPATIBLE=10.0.0
COMMENT='GOING TO 10G!' SCOPE=SPFILE;
alter system: System Management
ALTER SYSTEM CHECKPOINT GLOBAL;
ALTER SYSTEM KILL SESSION '145,334';
ALTER SYSTEM ENABLE RESTRICTED SESSION;
ALTER SYSTEM DISABLE RESTRICTED SESSION;
ALTER SYSTEM SUSPEND;
ALTER SYSTEM QUIESCE RESTRICTED;
ALTER SYSTEM UNQUIESCE;
ALTER SYSTEM RESUME;
ALTER SYSTEM FLUSH SHARED_POOL;
ALTER SYSTEM FLUSH BUFFER_CACHE;

alter table:
External Table Operations
ALTER TABLE ext_parts REJECT LIMIT 500;
ALTER TABLE ext_parts DEFUALT DIRECTORY ext_employee_dir;
ALTER TABLE ext_parts ACCESS PARAMETERS
(FIELDS TERMINATED BY ’,’);
ALTER TABLE ext_parts LOCATION (’PARTS01.TXT’,’PARTS02.TXT’);
ALTER TABLE ext_parts ADD COLUMN (SSN NUMBER);
alter table: Move Table
ALTER TABLE parts move TABLESPACE parts_new_tbs PCTFREE 10 PCTUSED 60;
alter table: Table Column – Add
ALTER TABLE PARTS ADD (part_location VARCHAR2(20) );
ALTER TABLE PARTS ADD (part_location VARCHAR2(20), part_bin VARCHAR2(30) );
ALTER TABLE parts ADD (photo BLOB)
LOB (photo) STORE AS lob_parts_photo
(TABLESPACE parts_lob_tbs);
alter table: Table Column – Modify
ALTER TABLE PARTS MODIFY (part_location VARCHAR2(30) );
ALTER TABLE PARTS MODIFY
part_location VARCHAR2(30), part_bin VARCHAR2(20) );
ALTER TABLE parts modify (name NOT NULL);
ALTER TABLE parts modify (name NULL);
ALTER TABLE parts MODIFY LOB (photo) (STORAGE(FREELISTS 2));
ALTER TABLE parts MODIFY LOB (photo) (PCTVERSION 50);
alter table: Table Column – Remove
ALTER TABLE parts DROP (part_location);
ALTER TABLE parts DROP (part_location, part_bin);
alter table: Table Column – Rename
ALTER TABLE parts RENAME COLUMN part_location TO part_loc;
alter table: Table Constraints – Add Check Constraint
ALTER TABLE parts ADD (CONSTRAINT ck_parts_01 CHECK (id > 0) );
alter table: Table Constraints – Add Default Value
ALTER TABLE PARTS MODIFY (name DEFAULT 'Not Available');
ALTER TABLE PARTS ADD (vendor_code NUMBER DEFAULT 0);
ALTER TABLE PARTS MODIFY (part_description DEFAULT NULL);
alter table: Table Constraints – Add Foreign Key
ALTER TABLE parts ADD CONSTRAINT fk_part_bin
FOREIGN KEY (bin_code) REFERENCES part_bin;
alter table: Table Constraints – Add Primary and Unique Key
ALTER TABLE parts ADD CONSTRAINT pk_parts_part_id
PRIMARY KEY (id) USING INDEX TABLESPACE parts_index
STORAGE (INITIAL 100K NEXT 100K PCTINCREASE 0);
Chapter 1: DBA Cheat Sheet 11
ALTER TABLE parts ADD CONSTRAINT uk_parts_part_bin
UNIQUE (part_bin)USING INDEX TABLESPACE parts_index
STORAGE (INITIAL 100K NEXT 100K PCTINCREASE 0);
alter table: Table Constraints – Modify
ALTER TABLE parts DISABLE UNIQUE (part_bin);
ALTER TABLE parts DISABLE CONSTRAINT uk_parts_part_bin;
ALTER TABLE parts DISABLE CONSTRAINT uk_parts_part_bin KEEP INDEX;
ALTER TABLE parts DISABLE CONSTRAINT fk_part_bin;
ALTER TABLE parts DISABLE CONSTRAINT fk_part_bin
DISABLE PRIMARY KEY KEEP INDEX;
ALTER TABLE parts ENABLE CONSTRAINT fk_part_bin;
ALTER TABLE parts ENABLE PRIMARY KEY;
ALTER TABLE parts ENABLE UNIQUE (part_bin);
ALTER TABLE parts ENABLE NOVALIDATE CONSTRAINT fk_part_bin;
ALTER TABLE parts ENABLE NOVALIDATE PRIMARY KEY;
ALTER TABLE parts ENABLE NOVALIDATE UNIQUE (part_bin);
ALTER TABLE parts ENABLE NOVALIDATE PRIMARY KEY
ENABLE NOVALIDATE CONSTRAINT fk_part_bin;
alter table: Table Constraints – Remove
ALTER TABLE parts DROP CONSTRAINT fk_part_bin;
ALTER TABLE parts DROP PRIMARY KEY;
ALTER TABLE parts DROP PRIMARY KEY CASCADE;
ALTER TABLE parts DROP UNIQUE (uk_parts_part_bin);
alter table: Table Partition – Add
ALTER TABLE store_sales ADD PARTITION sales_q1_04
VALUES LESS THAN (TO_DATE('01-APR-2004','DD-MON-YYYY'))
TABLESPACE data_0104_tbs UPDATE GLOBAL INDEXES;
ALTER TABLE daily_transactions ADD PARTITION;
ALTER TABLE daily_transactions
ADD PARTITION Alaska VALUES ('AK');
ALTER TABLE daily_transactions
add PARTITION SALES_2004_Q1 VALUES LESS THAN
(TO_DATE('01-APR-2004','DD-MON-YYYY')) SUBPARTITIONS 4;
alter table: Table Partition – Merge
ALTER TABLE store_sales
MERGE PARTITIONS Oklahoma, texas
INTO PARTITION oktx;
alter table: Table Partition – Move
ALTER TABLE store_sales MOVE PARTITION sales_overflow TABLESPACE
new_sales_overflow STORAGE (INITIAL 100m NEXT 100m PCTINCREASE 0)
UPDATE GLOBAL INDEXES;
alter table: Table Partition – Remove
ALTER TABLE store_sales DROP PARTITION sales_q1_04 UPDATE GLOBAL INDEXES;
alter table: Table Partition – Rename
ALTER TABLE store_sales RENAME PARTITION sales_q1 TO sales_first_quarter;
alter table: Table Partition – Split
ALTER TABLE store_sales
SPLIT PARTITION sales_overflow AT
(TO_DATE('01-FEB-2004','DD-MON-YYYY') )
INTO (PARTITION sales_q4_2003,
PARTITION sales_overflow)
UPDATE GLOBAL INDEXES;
ALTER TABLE composite_sales SPLIT PARTITION sales_q1
AT (TO_DATE('15-FEB-2003','DD-MON-YYYY'))
INTO (PARTITION sales_q1_01 SUBPARTITIONS 4
STORE IN (q1_01_tab1, q1_01_tab2, q1_01_tab3, q1_01_tab4),
PARTITION sales_q1_02 SUBPARTITIONS 4
STORE IN (q1_02_tab1, q1_02_tab2, q1_02_tab3, q1_02_tab4) )
UPDATE GLOBAL INDEXES;
alter table: Table Partition – Truncate
ALTER TABLE store_sales TRUNCATE PARTITION sales_overflow
UPDATE GLOBAL INDEXES;
alter table: Table Properties
ALTER TABLE parts PCTFREE 10 PCTUSED 60;
ALTER TABLE parts STORAGE (NEXT 1M);
ALTER TABLE parts PARALLEL 4;
alter table: Triggers – Modify Status
ALTER TABLE parts DISABLE ALL TRIGGERS;
ALTER TABLE parts ENABLE ALL TRIGGERS;
alter tablespace: Backups
ALTER TABLESPACE my_data_tbs BEGIN BACKUP;
ALTER TABLESPACE my_data_tbs END BACKUP;
alter tablespace: Data Files and Tempfiles
ALTER TABLESPACE mytbs
ADD DATAFILE '/ora100/oracle/mydb/mydb_mytbs_01.dbf' SIZE 100M;
12 Portable DBA: Oracle
ALTER TABLESPACE mytemp
ADD TEMPFILE '/ora100/oracle/mydb/mydb_mytemp_01.dbf'
SIZE 100M;
ALTER TABLESPACE mytemp AUTOEXTEND OFF;
ALTER TABLESPACE mytemp AUTOEXTEND ON NEXT 100m MAXSIZE 1G;
alter tablespace: Rename
ALTER TABLESPACE my_data_tbs RENAME TO my_newdata_tbs;
alter tablespace: Tablespace Management
ALTER TABLESPACE my_data_tbs DEFAULT
STORAGE (INITIAL 100m NEXT 100m FREELISTS 3);
ALTER TABLESPACE my_data_tbs MINIMUM EXTENT 500k;
ALTER TABLESPACE my_data_tbs RESIZE 100m;
ALTER TABLESPACE my_data_tbs COALESCE;
ALTER TABLESPACE my_data_tbs OFFLINE;
ALTER TABLESPACE my_data_tbs ONLINE;
ALTER TABLESPACE mytbs READ ONLY;
ALTER TABLESPACE mytbs READ WRITE;
ALTER TABLESPACE mytbs FORCE LOGGING;
ALTER TABLESPACE mytbs NOLOGGING;
ALTER TABLESPACE mytbs FLASHBACK ON;
ALTER TABLESPACE mytbs FLASHBACK OFF;
ALTER TABLESPACE mytbs RETENTION GUARANTEE;
ALTER TABLESPACE mytbs RETENTION NOGUARANTEE;
alter trigger
ALTER TRIGGER tr_my_trigger DISABLE;
ALTER TRIGGER tr_my_trigger ENABLE;
ALTER TRIGGER tr_my_trigger RENAME TO tr_new_my_trigger;
ALTER TRIGGER tr_my_trigger COMPILE;
alter user: Change Password
ALTER USER olduser IDENTIFIED BY newpassword;
ALTER USER olduser IDENTIFIED EXTERNALLY;
alter user: Password and Account Management
ALTER USER olduser PASSWORD EXPIRE;
ALTER USER olduser ACCOUNT LOCK;
ALTER USER olduser ACCOUNT UNLOCK;
alter user: Profile
ALTER USER olduser PROFILE admin_profile;
Chapter 1: DBA Cheat Sheet 13
alter user: Quotas
ALTER USER olduser QUOTA UNLIMITED ON users;
ALTER USER olduser QUOTA 10000M ON USERS;
alter user: Roles
ALTER USER olduser DEFAULT ROLE admin_role;
ALTER USER olduser DEFAULT ROLE NONE;
ALTER USER olduser DEFAULT ROLE ALL EXCEPT admin_role;
alter user: Tablespace Assignments
ALTER USER olduser DEFAULT TABLESPACE users;
ALTER USER olduser TEMPORARY TABLESPACE temp;
alter view: Constraints
ALTER VIEW my_view
ADD CONSTRAINT u_my_view_01 UNIQUE (empno)
RELY DISABLE NOVALIDATE;
ALTER VIEW my_view DROP CONSTRAINT u_my_view_01;
ALTER VIEW my_view DROP PRIMARY KEY;
ALTER VIEW my_view MODIFY CONSTRAINT u_my_view_01 NORELY;
ALTER VIEW my_view MODIFY CONSTRAINT u_my_view_01 RELY;
alter view: Recompile
ALTER VIEW my_view RECOMPILE;
analyze: Analyze Cluster
ANALYZE CLUSTER my_cluster_tab COMPUTE STATISTICS FOR ALL ROWS;
ANALYZE CLUSTER my_cluster_tab
ESTIMATE STATISTICS SAMPLE 10000 ROWS FOR ALL ROWS;
analyze: Analyze Index
ANALYZE INDEX ix_tab_01 COMPUTE STATISTICS FOR ALL ROWS;
ANALYZE INDEX ix_tab_01
ESTIMATE STATISTICS SAMPLE 10000 ROWS FOR ALL ROWS;
analyze: Analyze Table
ANALYZE TABLE mytab COMPUTE STATISTICS
FOR ALL INDEXED COLUMNS SIZE 100;
ANALYZE TABLE mytab COMPUTE STATISTICS
FOR ALL INDEXES;
14 Portable DBA: Oracle
audit
AUDIT ALL ON scott.emp;
AUDIT UPDATE, DELETE ON scott.emp;
AUDIT SELECT on scott.emp WHENEVER NOT SUCCESSFUL;
AUDIT INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE ON DEFAULT;
comment
COMMENT ON TABLE scott.mytab IS
'This is a comment on the mytab table';
COMMENT ON COLUMN scott.mytab.col1 IS
'This is a comment on the col1 column';
COMMENT ON MATERIALIZED VIEW scott.mview IS
'This is a comment on the materialized view mview';
create cluster
CREATE CLUSTER pub_cluster (pubnum NUMBER)
SIZE 8K PCTFREE 10 PCTUSED 60 TABLESPACE user_data;
CREATE CLUSTER pub_cluster (pubnum NUMBER)
SIZE 8K HASHKEYS 1000 PCTFREE 10 PCTUSED 60
TABLESPACE user_data;
create control file
CREATE CONTROLFILE REUSE DATABASE "mydb"
NORESETLOGS NOARCHIVELOG
MAXLOGFILES 32 MAXLOGMEMBERS 3
MAXDATAFILES 200 MAXINSTANCES 1
MAXLOGHISTORY 1000
LOGFILE
GROUP 1 ('/ora01/oracle/mydb/mydb_redo1a.rdo',
'/ora02/oracle/mydb/mydb_redo1b.rdo') SIZE 500K,
GROUP 2 ('/ora01/oracle/mydb/mydb_redo2a.rdo',
'/ora01/oracle/mydb/mydb_redo2b.rdo') SIZE 500K
DATAFILE
'/ora01/oracle/mydb/mydb_system_01.dbf ',
'/ora01/oracle/mydb/mydb_users_01.dbf ',
'/ora01/oracle/mydb/mydb_undo_01.dbf ',
'/ora01/oracle/mydb/mydb_sysaux_01.dbf ',
'/ora01/oracle/mydb/mydb_alldata_01.dbf ';
create database
CREATE DATABASE prodb
MAXINSTANCES 1 MAXLOGHISTORY 1
MAXLOGFILES 5 MAXLOGMEMBERS 3
MAXDATAFILES 100
Chapter 1: DBA Cheat Sheet 15
16 Portable DBA: Oracle
DATAFILE 'C:\oracle\ora92010\prodb\system01.dbf'
SIZE 250M REUSE AUTOEXTEND ON NEXT 10240K
MAXSIZE UNLIMITED EXTENT MANAGEMENT LOCAL DEFAULT
TEMPORARY TABLESPACE TEMP
TEMPFILE 'C:\oracle\ora92010\prodb\temp01.dbf'
SIZE 40M REUSE AUTOEXTEND ON NEXT 640K MAXSIZE UNLIMITED
SYSAUX TABLESPACE
DATAFILE 'C:\oracle\ora92010\prodb\sysauxtbs01.dbf'
SIZE 300M REUSE AUTOEXTEND ON NEXT 5120K MAXSIZE UNLIMITED
UNDO TABLESPACE "UNDOTBS1"
DATAFILE 'C:\oracle\ora92010\prodb\undotbs01.dbf'
SIZE 200M REUSE AUTOEXTEND ON NEXT 5120K MAXSIZE UNLIMITED
CHARACTER SET WE8MSWIN1252
NATIONAL CHARACTER SET AL16UTF16
LOGFILE
GROUP 1 ('C:\oracle\ora92010\prodb\redo01.log') SIZE 102400K,
GROUP 2 ('C:\oracle\ora92010\prodb\redo02.log') SIZE 102400K,
GROUP 3 ('C:\oracle\ora92010\prodb\redo03.log') SIZE 102400K;
create database link
CREATE DATABASE LINK my_db_link
CONNECT TO current_user
USING 'my_db';
CREATE PUBLIC DATABASE LINK my_db_link
CONNECT TO remote_user IDENTIFIED BY psicorp
USING 'my_db';
create directory
CREATE OR REPLACE DIRECTORY mydir AS
'/opt/oracle/admin/directories/mydir';
create function
CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION find_value_in_table
(p_value IN NUMBER, p_table IN VARCHAR2,
p_column IN VARCHAR2)
RETURN NUMBER IS
v_found NUMBER;
v_sql VARCHAR2(2000);
BEGIN
v_sql:='SELECT 1 FROM 'p_table' WHERE 'p_column
' = 'p_value;
execute immediate v_sql into v_found;
return v_found;
END;
/
create index: Function-Based Index
CREATE INDEX fb_upper_last_name_emp ON emp_info (UPPER(last_name) );
Chapter 1: DBA Cheat Sheet 17
create index: Global Partitioned Indexes
CREATE INDEX ix_part_my_tab_01 ON store_sales (invoice_number)
GLOBAL PARTITION BY RANGE (invoice_number)
(PARTITION part_001 VALUES LESS THAN (1000),
PARTITION part_002 VALUES LESS THAN (10000),
PARTITION part_003 VALUES LESS THAN (MAXVALUE) );
CREATE INDEX ix_part_my_tab_02 ON store_sales
(store_id, time_id)
GLOBAL PARTITION BY RANGE (store_id, time_id)
(PARTITION PART_001 VALUES LESS THAN
(1000, TO_DATE('04-01-2003','MM-DD-YYYY') )
TABLESPACE partition_001
STORAGE (INITIAL 100M NEXT 200M PCTINCREASE 0),
PARTITION part_002 VALUES LESS THAN
(1000, TO_DATE('07-01-2003','MM-DD-YYYY') )
TABLESPACE partition_002
STORAGE (INITIAL 200M NEXT 400M PCTINCREASE 0),
PARTITION part_003 VALUES LESS THAN (maxvalue, maxvalue)
TABLESPACE partition_003 );
create index: Local Partitioned Indexes
CREATE INDEX ix_part_my_tab_01 ON my_tab
(col_one, col_two, col_three)
LOCAL (PARTITION tbs_part_01 TABLESPACE part_tbs_01,
PARTITION tbs_part_02 TABLESPACE part_tbs_02,
PARTITION tbs_part_03 TABLESPACE part_tbs_03,
PARTITION tbs_part_04 TABLESPACE part_tbs_04);
CREATE INDEX ix_part_my_tab_01 ON my_tab (col_one, col_two, col_three)
LOCAL STORE IN (part_tbs_01, part_tbs_02, part_tbs_03, part_tbs_04);
CREATE INDEX ix_part_my_tab_01 ON my_tab (col_one, col_two, col_three)
LOCAL STORE IN (
part_tbs_01 STORAGE (INITIAL 10M NEXT 10M MAXEXTENTS 200),
part_tbs_02,
part_tbs_03 STORAGE (INITIAL 100M NEXT 100M MAXEXTENTS 200),
part_tbs_04 STORAGE (INITIAL 1000M NEXT 1000M MAXEXTENTS 200));
create index: Local Subpartitioned Indexes
CREATE INDEX sales_ix ON store_sales(time_id, store_id)
STORAGE (INITIAL 1M MAXEXTENTS UNLIMITED) LOCAL
(PARTITION q1_2003,
PARTITION q2_2003,
PARTITION q3_2003
(SUBPARTITION pq3200301, SUBPARTITION pq3200302,
SUBPARTITION pq3200303, SUBPARTITION pq3200304,
SUBPARTITION pq3200305),
PARTITION q4_2003
(SUBPARTITION pq4200301 TABLESPACE tbs_1,
SUBPARTITION pq4200302 TABLESPACE tbs_1,
SUBPARTITION pq4200303 TABLESPACE tbs_1,
SUBPARTITION pq4200304 TABLESPACE tbs_1,
SUBPARTITION pq4200305 TABLESPACE tbs_1,
SUBPARTITION pq4200306 TABLESPACE tbs_1,
SUBPARTITION pq4200307 TABLESPACE tbs_1,
SUBPARTITION pq4200308 TABLESPACE tbs_1),
PARTITION sales_overflow
(SUBPARTITION pqoflw01 TABLESPACE tbs_2,
SUBPARTITION pqoflw02 TABLESPACE tbs_2,
SUBPARTITION pqoflw03 TABLESPACE tbs_2,
SUBPARTITION pqoflw04 TABLESPACE tbs_2));
create index: Nonpartitioned Indexes
CREATE INDEX ix_mytab_01 ON mytab(column_1);
CREATE UNIQUE INDEX ix_mytab_01 ON mytab(column_1, column_2, column_3);
CREATE INDEX ix_mytab_01 ON mytab(column_1, column_2, column_3)
TABLESPACE my_indexes COMPRESS
STORAGE (INITIAL 10K NEXT 10K PCTFREE 10) COMPUTE STATISTICS;
CREATE BITMAP INDEX bit_mytab_01 ON my_tab(col_two)
TABLESPACE my_tbs;
create materialized view
CREATE MATERIALIZED VIEW emp_dept_mv1
TABLESPACE users BUILD IMMEDIATE
REFRESH FAST ON COMMIT WITH ROWID
ENABLE QUERY REWRITE AS
SELECT d.rowid deptrowid, e.rowid emprowid,
e.empno, e.ename, e.job, d.loc
FROM dept d, emp e
WHERE d.deptno = e.deptno;
CREATE MATERIALIZED VIEW emp_dept_mv3
TABLESPACE users BUILD IMMEDIATE
REFRESH FAST ON COMMIT WITH ROWID
DISABLE QUERY REWRITE AS
SELECT d.rowid deptrowid, e.rowid emprowid,
d.dname, d.loc, e.ename, e.job
FROM dept d, emp e
WHERE d.deptno (+) = e.deptno;
create materialized view: Partitioned Materialized View
CREATE MATERIALIZED VIEW part_emp_mv1
PARTITION BY RANGE (hiredate)
(PARTITION month1
VALUES LESS THAN (TO_DATE('01-APR-1981', 'DD-MON-YYYY'))
PCTFREE 0 PCTUSED 99
STORAGE (INITIAL 64k NEXT 16k PCTINCREASE 0)
TABLESPACE users,
18 Portable DBA: Oracle
PARTITION month2
VALUES LESS THAN (TO_DATE('01-DEC-1981', 'DD-MON-YYYY'))
PCTFREE 0 PCTUSED 99
STORAGE (INITIAL 64k NEXT 16k PCTINCREASE 0)
TABLESPACE users,
PARTITION month3
VALUES LESS THAN (TO_DATE('01-APR-1988', 'DD-MON-YYYY'))
PCTFREE 0 PCTUSED 99
STORAGE (INITIAL 64k NEXT 16k PCTINCREASE 0)
TABLESPACE users)
BUILD IMMEDIATE REFRESH FAST ENABLE QUERY REWRITE AS
SELECT hiredate, count(*) as hires
FROM emp
GROUP BY hiredate;
create materialized view log
CREATE MATERIALIZED VIEW LOG ON emp
TABLESPACE users
WITH PRIMARY KEY, SEQUENCE,
(ename, job, mgr, hiredate, sal, comm, deptno)
INCLUDING NEW VALUES;
create package/create package body
CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE get_Tomdate_pkg IS
FUNCTION GetTomdate RETURN DATE;
PRAGMA RESTRICT_REFERENCES (GetTomdate, WNDS);
PROCEDURE ResetSysDate;
END get_Tomdate_pkg;
/
CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY get_Tomdate_pkg IS
v_Sysdate DATE := TRUNC(SYSDATE);
FUNCTION GetTomdate RETURN DATE IS
BEGIN
RETURN v_sysdate+1;
END GetTomdate;
PROCEDURE ResetSysdate IS
BEGIN
v_Sysdate := SYSDATE;
END ResetSysdate;
END get_Tomdate_pkg;
/
create pfile
CREATE PFILE FROM SPFILE;
CREATE PFILE='/opt/oracle/admin/mydb/pfile/initmybd.ora'
FROM SPFILE='/opt/oracle/admin/mydb/pfile/spfilemybd.ora';
Chapter 1: DBA Cheat Sheet 19
create procedure
CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE new_emp_salary
(p_empid IN NUMBER, p_increase IN NUMBER)
AS
BEGIN
UPDATE emp SET salary=salary*p_increase
WHERE empid=p_empid;
END;
/
create profile
CREATE PROFILE development_profile
LIMIT
SESSIONS_PER_USER 2 CONNECT_TIME 100000 IDLE_TIME 100000
LOGICAL_READS_PER_SESSION 1000000
PRIVATE_SGA 10m
FAILED_LOGIN_ATTEMPTS 3
PASSWORD_LIFE_TIME 60
PASSWORD_REUSE_TIME 365
PASSWORD_REUSE_MAX 3
PASSWORD_LOCK_TIME 30
PASSWORD_GRACE_TIME 5;
create role
CREATE ROLE developer_role IDENTIFIED USING develop;
create rollback segment
CREATE ROLLBACK SEGMENT r01 TABLESPACE RBS
STORAGE (INITIAL 100m NEXT 100M MINEXTENTS 5 OPTIMAL 500M);
create sequence
CREATE SEQUENCE my_seq
START WITH 1 INCREMENT BY 1 MAXVALUE 1000000 CYCLE CACHE;
create spfile
CREATE SPFILE FROM PFILE;
CREATE SPFILE='/opt/oracle/admin/mydb/pfile/spfilemybd.ora'
FROM PFILE='/opt/oracle/admin/mydb/pfile/initmybd.ora';
create synonym
CREATE SYNONYM scott_user.emp FOR scott.EMP;
CREATE PUBLIC SYNONYM emp FOR scott.EMP;
20 Portable DBA: Oracle
create table
CREATE TABLE my_tab
(id NUMBER, current_value VARCHAR2(2000) ) COMPRESS;
CREATE TABLE parts (id NUMBER, version NUMBER, name VARCHAR2(30),
Bin_code NUMBER, upc NUMBER, active_code VARCHAR2(1) NOT NULL
CONSTRAINT ck_parts_active_code_01
CHECK (UPPER(active_code)= 'Y' or UPPER(active_code)='N'),
CONSTRAINT pk_parts PRIMARY KEY (id, version)
USING INDEX TABLESPACE parts_index
STORAGE (INITIAL 1m NEXT 1m) )
TABLESPACE parts_tablespace
PCTFREE 20 PCTUSED 60 STORAGE ( INITIAL 10m NEXT 10m PCTINCREASE 0);
create tablespace: Permanent Tablespace
CREATE TABLESPACE data_tbs
DATAFILE '/opt/oracle/mydbs/data/mydbs_data_tbs_01.dbf'
SIZE 100m;
CREATE TABLESPACE data_tbs
DATAFILE '/opt/oracle/mydbs/data/mydbs_data_tbs_01.dbf'
SIZE 100m FORCE LOGGING BLOCKSIZE 8k;
CREATE TABLESPACE data_tbs
DATAFILE '/opt/oracle/mydbs/data/mydbs_data_tbs_01.dbf'
SIZE 100m NOLOGGING
DEFAULT COMPRESS EXTENT MANAGEMENT LOCAL UNIFORM SIZE 1M;
CREATE TABLESPACE data_tbs
DATAFILE '/opt/oracle/mydbs/data/mydbs_data_tbs_01.dbf'
SIZE 100m NOLOGGING
DEFAULT COMPRESS EXTENT MANAGEMENT LOCAL AUTOALLOCATE
SEGMENT SPACE MANAGEMENT AUTO;
CREATE BIGFILE TABLESPACE data_tbs
DATAFILE '/opt/oracle/mydbs/data/mydbs_data_tbs_01.dbf'
SIZE 10G;
create tablespace: Temporary Tablespace
CREATE TABLESPACE temp_tbs
TEMPFILE '/opt/oracle/mydbs/data/mydbs_temp_tbs_01.tmp'
SIZE 100m;
create tablespace: Undo Tablespace
CREATE TABLESPACE undo_tbs
TEMPFILE '/opt/oracle/mydbs/data/mydbs_undo_tbs_01.tmp'
SIZE 1g RETENTION GUARANTEE;
Chapter 1: DBA Cheat Sheet 21
22 Portable DBA: Oracle
create trigger
CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER emp_comm_after_insert
BEFORE INSERT ON emp FOR EACH ROW
DECLARE
v_sal number;
v_comm number;
BEGIN
-- Find username of person performing the INSERT into the table
v_sal:=:new.salary;
:new.comm:=v_sal*.10;
END;
/
create user
CREATE USER Robert IDENTIFIED BY Freeman
DEFAULT TABLESPACE users_tbs
TEMPORARY TABLESPACE temp
QUOTA 100M ON users_tbs
QUOTA UNLIMITED ON data_tbs;
create view
CREATE OR REPLACE VIEW vw_emp_dept_10 AS
SELECT * FROM EMP WHERE dept=10;
CREATE OR REPLACE VIEW vw_public_email AS
SELECT ename_first, ename_last, email_address
FROM EMP WHERE public='Y'
delete
DELETE FROM emp WHERE empid=100;
DELETE FROM emp e WHERE e.rowid >
(SELECT MIN (esub.ROWID) FROM emp esub
WHERE e.empid=esub.empid);
drop cluster
DROP CLUSTER scott.emp_cluster
INCLUDING TABLES CASCADE CONSTRAINTS;
drop database
DROP DATABASE;
drop database link
DROP DATABASE LINK my_db_link;
DROP PUBLIC DATABASE LINK my_db_link;
Chapter 1: DBA Cheat Sheet 23
drop directory
DROP DIRECTORY mydir;
drop function
DROP FUNCTION find_value_in_table;
drop index
DROP INDEX ix_my_tab;
drop materialized view
DROP MATERIALIZED VIEW my_mview;
DROP MATERIALIZED VIEW my_mview PRESERVE TABLE;
drop materialized view log
DROP MATERIALIZED VIEW LOG ON mytab;
drop package/drop package body
DROP PACKAGE scott.my_package
DROP PACKAGE BODY scott.my_package;
drop procedure
DROP PROCEDURE my_proc;
drop profile
DROP PROFILE my_profile CASCADE;
drop role
DROP ROLE my_role;
drop rollback segment
DROP ROLLBACK SEGMENT rbs01;
drop sequence
DROP SEQUENCE my_seq;
drop synonym
DROP SYNONYM my_synonym;
DROP PUBLIC SYNONYM my_synonym;
drop table
DROP TABLE my_tab;
DROP TABLE my_tab CASCADE CONSTRAINTS;
DROP TABLE my_tab CASCADE CONSTRAINTS PURGE;
drop tablespace
DROP TABLESPACE my_tbs;
DROP TABLESPACE my_tbs INCLUDING CONTENTS;
DROP TABLESPACE my_tbs INCLUDING CONTENTS
AND DATAFILES CASCADE CONSTRAINTS;
drop trigger
DROP TRIGGER my_trigger;
drop user
DROP USER my_user CASCADE;
drop view
DROP VIEW my_view CASCADE CONSTRAINTS;
explain plan
EXPLAIN PLAN SET STATEMENT_ID='TEST' FOR
SELECT * FROM emp WHERE EMPID=100;
flashback database
FLASHBACK DATABASE TO SCN 10000;
FLASHBACK DATABASE TO TIMESTAMP SYSDATE – 1/24;
FLASHBACK DATABASE TO BEFORE TIMESTAMP SYSDATE – 1/24;
flashback table
FLASHBACK TABLE my_tab TO SCN 10000;
FLASHBACK TABLE my_tab TO TIMESTAMP SYSDATE – 1/24
ENABLE TRIGGERS;
FLASHBACK TABLE my_tab TO BEFORE DROP;
FLASHBACK TABLE my_tab TO BEFORE DROP RENAME TO rec_tab;
grants: Object Grants
GRANT SELECT ON scott.my_tab TO my_user;
GRANT INSERT, UPDATE, SELECT ON scott.my_tab TO my_user;
24 Portable DBA: Oracle
Chapter 1: DBA Cheat Sheet 25
GRANT SELECT ON scott.my_tab TO my_user WITH GRANT OPTION;
GRANT SELECT ON scott.my_tab TO PUBLIC WITH GRANT OPTION;
grants: System Grants
GRANT CREATE TABLE to my_user;
GRANT CREATE ANY TABLE to my_user WITH ADMIN OPTION;
GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES to my_user WITH ADMIN OPTION;
insert
INSERT INTO dept VALUES (100, 'Marketing', 'Y');
INSERT INTO dept (deptid, dept_name, active)
VALUES (100, 'Marketing', 'Y');
INSERT INTO emp_history SELECT * FROM emp a
WHERE a.empid NOT IN (SELECT empid FROM emp_history);
INSERT INTO emp_pay_summary
SELECT empid, sum(gross_pay) FROM emp_pay_history
GROUP BY empid;
INSERT ALL
INTO store_sales (store_id, sales_date, deptid, sales_amt)
VALUES (store_id, start_date, deptid, mon_sales)
INTO store_sales (store_id, sales_date, deptid, sales_amt)
VALUES (store_id, start_date+1, deptid, tue_sales)
INTO store_sales (store_id, sales_date, deptid, sales_amt)
VALUES (store_id, start_date+2, deptid, wed_sales)
INTO store_sales (store_id, sales_date, deptid, sales_amt)
VALUES (store_id, start_date+3, deptid, thur_sales)
INTO store_sales (store_id, sales_date, deptid, sales_amt)
VALUES (store_id, start_date+4, deptid, fri_sales)
INTO store_sales (store_id, sales_date, deptid, sales_amt)
VALUES (store_id, start_date+5, deptid, sat_sales)
INTO store_sales (store_id, sales_date, deptid, sales_amt)
VALUES (store_id, start_date+6, deptid, sun_sales)
SELECT store_id, start_date, deptid, mon_sales, tue_sales,
wed_sales, thur_sales, fri_sales, sat_sales, sun_sales
FROM store_sales_load;
INSERT ALL
WHEN store_id <>= 100 THEN INTO west_stores
ELSE INTO misc_stores
SELECT * FROM store_sales_load;
INSERT /*+ APPEND */ INTO emp VALUES (100,
'Jacob','Freeman',1000,20, null, 10, sysdate, 100,
sysdate+365);
lock table
LOCK TABLE my_table IN EXCLUSIVE MODE NOWAIT;
LOCK TABLE my_table IN ROW EXCLUSIVE MODE;
26 Portable DBA: Oracle
merge
MERGE INTO emp_retire A
USING (SELECT empno, ename_last, ename_first, salary
FROM emp WHERE retire_cd='Y') B
ON (a.empid=b.empid)
WHEN MATCHED THEN UPDATE SET
a.ename_last=b.ename_last,
a.ename_first=b.ename_first,
a.salary=b.salary
DELETE WHERE (b.retire_cd='D')
WHEN NOT MATCHED THEN INSERT
(a.empid, a.ename_last, a.ename_first, a.salary)
VALUES (b.empid, b.ename_last, b.ename_first, b.salary)
WHERE (b.retire_cd!='D');
noaudit
NOAUDIT ALL ON scott.emp;
NOAUDIT UPDATE, DELETE ON scott.emp;
NOAUDIT SELECT on scott.emp WHENEVER NOT SUCCESSFUL;
NOAUDIT INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE ON DEFAULT;
purge
PURGE TABLE my_tab;
PURGE INDEX ix_my_tab;
PURGE RECYCLEBIN;
PURGE DBA_RECYCLEBIN;
PURGE TABLESPACE data_tbs USER scott;
recover
RECOVER DATABASE;
RECOVER TABLESPACE user_data, user_index;
RECOVER DATAFILE
'/opt/oracle/admin/mydb/datafile/mydb_users_01.dbf';
RECOVER DATABASE UNTIL CANCEL USING BACKUP CONTROLFILE;
RECOVER DATABASE UNTIL CHANGE 94044;
RECOVER DATABASE UNTIL TIME '2004-08-01:22:00:04';
rename
RENAME my_table to my_tab;
revoke: Object Grants
REVOKE SELECT ON scott.my_tab FROM my_user;
REVOKE INSERT, UPDATE, SELECT ON scott.my_tab FROM my_user;
REVOKE SELECT ON scott.my_tab FROM my_user;
REVOKE SELECT ON scott.my_tab FROM PUBLIC;
Chapter 1: DBA Cheat Sheet 27
revoke: System Grants
REVOKE CREATE TABLE FROM my_user;
REVOKE CREATE ANY TABLE FROM my_user;
REVOKE ALL PRIVILEGES FROM my_user;
rollback
ROLLBACK;
savepoint
SAVEPOINT alpha;
select
SELECT ename_last, dname
FROM emp a, dept b
WHERE a.deptid=b.deptid;
SELECT a.empid, b.dept_name
FROM emp a, dept b
WHERE a.deptid=b.deptid (+);
SELECT a.empid, b.dept_name
FROM emp a LEFT OUTER JOIN dept b
ON a.deptid=b.deptid;
SELECT * FROM dept WHERE EXISTS
(SELECT * FROM emp
WHERE emp.deptid=dept.deptid
AND emp.salary > 100);
SELECT ename_first, ename_last,
CASE deptid
WHEN 10 THEN 'Acounting' WHEN 20 THEN 'Sales'
ELSE 'None' END FROM emp;
SELECT empid, ename_last, salary, comm
FROM emp a
WHERE salary*.10 > (SELECT AVG(comm) FROM emp z
WHERE a.deptid=z.deptid);
WITH avg_dept_sales AS (
SELECT a.deptid, avg(b.sales_amt) avg_sales
FROM emp a, dept_sales b
WHERE a.deptid=b.deptid
GROUP BY a.deptid),
emp_salaries AS
(SELECT empid, AVG(salary) avg_salary FROM emp
GROUP BY empid)
SELECT * FROM emp_salaries b WHERE avg_salary*.05 >
(SELECT avg_sales FROM avg_dept_sales);
SELECT /*+ INDEX (a, emp_last_name_ix) */ empid
FROM emp a WHERE ename_last='Freeman'
SELECT empid, TO_CHAR(retire_date, 'MM/DD/YYYY')
FROM emp
WHERE retire_date IS NOT NULL
ORDER BY retire_date
SELECT empid, COUNT(*)
FROM emp
GROUP BY empid
HAVING COUNT(*) > 1;
SELECT empid, salary FROM emp
AS OF TIMESTAMP(SYSTIMESTAMP - INTERVAL '1' DAY)
WHERE empid=20;
SELECT empid, salary FROM emp
VERSIONS BETWEEN
TIMESTAMP SYSTIMESTAMP - INTERVAL '1' DAY AND
SYSTIMESTAMP - INTERVAL '1' HOUR
WHERE empid=20;
set constraints
SET CONSTRAINTS ALL IMMEDIATE;
SET CONSTRAINTS ALL DEFERRED;
SET CONSTRAINT fk_my_tab DEFERRED;
set transaction
SET TRANSACTION USE ROLLBACK SEGMENT rbs01;
SET TRANSACTION READ ONLY;
SET TRANSACTION ISOLATION LEVEL SERIALIZABLE;
truncate
TRUNCATE TABLE my_tab;
TRUNCATE TABLE my_tab PRESERVE MATERIALIZED VIEW LOG;
TRUNCATE TABLE my_tab REUSE STORAGE;
TRUNCATE TABLE my_tab DROP STORAGE;
update
UPDATE emp SET salary=100 WHERE empid=100;
UPDATE emp SET salary=NULL, retire_date=SYSDATE
WHERE empid=100;
UPDATE emp SET salary=salary*1.10
WHERE deptid IN
(SELECT deptid FROM dept WHERE dept_name = 'Sales');
UPDATE emp a SET (salary, comm)=
(SELECT salary*1.10, comm*1.10
FROM emp b WHERE a.empid=b.empid);
INSERT INTO store_sales
PARTITION (store_sales_jan_2004) sa
SET sa.sales_amt=1.10 where store_id=100;
28 Portable DBA: Oracle

June 16, 2008

All about storage: SAN, RAID, DISKS – SQL Server DBA

One of the easiest ways to improve the lifetime performance of a SQL Server database is proper setup of the physical and logical drives. While it's an easy technique, proper disk subsystem configuration is often overlooked or handled by a member of the IT staff other than a SQL Server DBA.

Storage specific terms that everyone should know:
.RAID – Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks, also known as Redundant Array of Independent Disks.
.Disk subsystem – A general term that refers to the disks on the server.
.Spindle – Spindles are another way to refer to the physical disk drives that make up the RAID array.
· I/O Ops – Input/Output operations, usually measured per second.
· Queuing – Number of I/O Ops that are pending completion by the disk subsystem.
· SAN – Storage area networks are collections of storage devices and fibre switches connected together along with the servers that access the storage on the device. SAN has also become a generic term, which refers to the physical storage drives such as EMC, 3PAR and Hitachi.
· LUN – Logical Unit Number – This is the identification number assigned to a volume when created on a SAN device.
· Physical drive – How Windows sees any RAID array, single drive or LUN that is attached to the server.
· Logical drive – How Windows presents drives to the user (C:, D:, E:, etc.).
· Block size – The amount of data read from the spindles in a single read operation. This size varies per vendor from 8 KB to 256 MB.
· Hardware array – A RAID array created using a physical RAID controller.
· Software array – A RAID array created within Windows using the computer management snap-in.
· Hot spare – A spindle that sits in the drive cage and is added to the array automatically in the event of a drive failure. While this does not increase capacity, it does reduce the amount of time that the array is susceptible to data loss because of a second failed drive.
· Recovery time – Amount of time needed for the RAID array to become fully redundant after a failed drive has been replaced, either manually or automatically via a hot spare.

RAID system:
RAID 10 – Mirrored Strip Sets. A RAID 10 array is most useful for high read or high write operations. RAID 10 is extremely fast; however, it is also extremely expensive (compared to the other RAID levels available). In basic terms, a RAID 10 array is several RAID 1 arrays stripped together for performance. As with a RAID 1 array, as data is written to the active drive in the pair, it is also written to the secondary drive in the pair. A RAID 10 array can survive several drive failures so long as no two drives in a single pair are lost.

RAID Level 0: "Disk Striping" RAID 0: Also known as "Disk Striping", is technically not a RAID level since it provides no fault tolerance. (Parity) Data is written in blocks across multiple drives, so one drive can be writing or reading a block while the next is seeking the next block. The advantages of RAID 0 is it’s high level of I/O performance because the I/Os are spread across multiple channels and drives. Because RAID 0 offers no fault tolerance, if one drive should fail, this will result a loss of all your data. This should never be used in a environment where data is mission critical. RAID 1 – Mirror. A RAID 1 array is most useful for high write files, such as the page file, transaction logs and tempdb database. A RAID 1 array takes two physical disks and creates an exact duplicate of the primary drive on the backup drive. There is no performance gain or loss when using a RAID 1 array. This array can survive a single drive failure without incurring any data loss.












SAN considerations for your SQL Server environment
· The SANs sole function is to store data and offer high reliability and high performance access to this data. It is a network which provides high-speed, highly reliable transportation of data for multiple servers which generally connect through a high speed optical network called fibre. A SAN consists of many high performance hard drives (typically several hundred) aggregated together with high performance controllers and caching; these hard drives are virtualized so that the consumer does not know which hard drives a SQL Server or other device connected to the SAN will access. A SAN administrator will present blocks of storage to servers using the SAN and these blocks of storage can consist of a single hard drive, multiple hard drives or portions of hard drives in a logical unit called a LUN (Logical Unit Number).

SANS have several advantages over locally attached storage:
· There is a distance limitation for SCSI connections which the SAN fibre network overcomes.
· Most SANs provide features which allow you to clone, snapshot, or rapidly move data (replicate) from one location to another. File copies or bcp over your network simply are not scalable. This increases their usefulness for disaster recovery.
· SANs play well with clusters. Clusters share resources between the nodes that form the cluster.
· SANs will allow a cluster or a server to boot off a SAN.
· SANs offer increased utilization of storage. With locally attached storage large amounts of disk space can be wasted. With a SAN you can expand or contract the amount of disk space a server or cluster can access.
· SANs will also offload some of the processing from the host system to the SAN itself.
Benefits of a SAN:
The primary benefits of a SAN are:
Availability: A single copy of data is accessible to any and all hosts via multiple paths.
Reliability: Dependable data transportation ensures a low error rate, and an ability to recover from failures is provided.
Scalability: Servers and storage devices may be added independently of one another, and do not depend on proprietary systems.
Performance: Fibre Channel (the standard method for SAN interconnectivity) has a 100MB/sec bandwidth and low overhead, and it separates storage and network I/O.
Manageability: Emerging software and standards for both FC-AL and Fibre Channel fabric allow single centralized management and proactive error detection and correction.
Return On Information Management: Due to increased redundancy and superior manageability, as well as the ability to add storage and servers independently of one another SANs provide a lower cost of ownership and a Higher Return On Information Management (ROIM).

When requesting storage from your SAN admin or Windows admin, tell them what RAID level and storage tier you need. That's important because the RAID level determines just how much read and write I/O you need, as well as the amount of redundancy you require. It's important that a DBA is involved in the decision process for RAID level volumes -- after all, you know the data within the system much better than any storage engineer does.
.

June 04, 2008

Basic steps to improve SQL Server Performance

1. Rebuild your indexes
2. Update statistics(full) - EXEC SP_UPDATESTATS
3. Recompile stored procedure sp_recompile SP_Name
A lot of times developers change table data types and forget to change the stored procedure, thus the optimizer cannot generate a good query plan.
4. Look at the graphical execution plan in Query Analyzer (select SQL statement or statements and press Ctrl-L) to get some idea of what part of a query is the most time-consuming. You might be able to rewrite the query to improve performance, or modify index structures.
5. Keep transactions as short as possible. This can be used to prevent deadlocks.
6. Try to avoid using SQL Server cursors, whenever possible.SQL Server cursors can results in some performance degradation in comparison with select statements. Try to use correlated subquery or derived tables, if you need to perform row-by-row operations.
If cursor cannnot avoided, then try to reduce the number of records to process in the cursor,try to reduce the number of columns to process in the cursor.

June 02, 2008

SQL SERVER 2005 Encryption

In general, encryption is a mechanism for protecting data, which applies to it a specially designed algorithm, effectively obfuscating its content by making it different from the original. Use of the algorithm involves a component known as the encryption key (a sequence of characters). The process can be reversed by applying an appropriate decryption key and equivalent algorithm, yielding the original data.
Microsoft SQL Server 2005 makes use of a key hierarchy, which helps to protect keys that are to be used for encryption. This hierarchy can best be viewed as a series of layers, in which each layer encrypts the layer below it. Figure shows a graphical representation of the key hierarchy.



Service Master Key
Each SQL Server 2005 installation has exactly one Service Master Key (SMK), which is generated at install time. The SMK directly or indirectly secures all other keys on the server, making it the "mother of all SQL Server encryption keys." The Windows Data Protection API (DPAPI), at the higher O/S level, uses the SQL Server service account credentials to automatically encrypt and secure the SMK.
The SMK can be backed up via the BACKUP SERVICE MASTER KEY T-SQL statement. This statement has the following format:
BACKUP SERVICE MASTER KEY TO FILE = 'path_to_file' ENCRYPTION BY PASSWORD = 'password'
you can use the RESTORE SERVICE MASTER KEY statement:
RESTORE SERVICE MASTER KEY FROM FILE = 'path_to_file' DECRYPTION BY PASSWORD = 'password' [FORCE]
Because it is automatically generated by SQL Server, there are no CREATE or DROP statements for the Service Master Key.
Database Master Keys
While each SQL Server has a single Service Master Key, each SQL database can have its own Database Master Key (DMK). The DMK is created using the CREATE MASTER KEY statement:
CREATE MASTER KEY ENCRYPTION BY PASSWORD = 'password'
The DMK is encrypted using the Service Master Key and stored in the master database; a feature known as "automatic key management."
Like the Service Master Key, you can backup and restore Database Master Keys.
BACKUP MASTER KEY TO FILE = 'path_to_file'
ENCRYPTION BY PASSWORD = 'password'
Restoring the Database Master Key requires that you use the DECRYPTION BY PASSWORD clause, which specifies the password previously used to encrypt the backup file. In addition you must use the ENCRYPTION BY PASSWORD clause, which gives SQL Server a password to encrypt the DMK after it is loaded in the database.
RESTORE MASTER KEY FROM FILE = 'path_to_file' DECRYPTION BY PASSWORD = 'password' ENCRYPTION BY PASSWORD = 'password' [ FORCE ]
To drop a DMK, use the DROP MASTER KEY statement:
DROP MASTER KEY
This statement drops the Database Master Key from the current database.

Certificates

There are a lot of options associated with the CREATE CERTIFICATE statement.
CREATE CERTIFICATE TestCertificate
ENCRYPTION BY PASSWORD = ‘abcd123@’
WITH SUBJECT = 'This is a test certificate',
START_DATE = '1/1/2006',
EXPIRY_DATE = '12/31/2008';

Encryption and Decryption by Certificate

Certificates can be used to encrypt and decrypt data directly by using the built-in EncryptByCert, DecryptByCert and Cert_ID functions.
The DecryptByCert function is used to decrypt data that was previously encrypted by certificate.

EncryptByCert function, which takes two parameters - the certificate identifier (which can be derived from the certificate name using the Cert_ID T-SQL function) and the string of characters (of nvarchar, char, wchar, varchar or nchar datatype) to be encrypted with it, such as in the following sample statement:
EncryptByCert ( Cert_ID('TestCertificate'), 'Test’)

The DecryptByCert T-SQL function, which returns original data, also requires a certificate identifier and the encrypted string of characters (if the certificate definition included a password, you would need to provide it here as well). Note that you can restrict the ability to decrypt encrypted data either by making the password known to a limited number of users or by applying an AUTHORIZATION clause when creating it (which specifies its owner).
DecryptByCert(Cert_ID('TestCertificate'), @decrypt_data)
The whole process can be illustrated as:
DECLARE @encrypted NVARCHAR(100)
SELECT @encrypted = EncryptByCert(Cert_ID('TestCertificate'), N'Test’)
SELECT @encrypted
SELECT CAST(DecryptByCert(Cert_ID('TestCertificate'), @encrypted) AS NVARCHAR)

Symmetric Keys
You can use certificates to create symmetric keys for encryption and decryption within the database.
CREATE SYMMETRIC KEY CCKey
WITH ALGORITHM = TRIPLE_DES
ENCRYPTION BY CERTIFICATE TestCertificate

SQL Server provides a set of functions to encrypt and decrypt data by symmetric key. These functions are EncryptByKey, DecryptByKey and Key_GUID.

The EncryptByKey function requires a reference to the symmetric key GUID in order to encrypt data.
The DecryptByKey function performs the reverse of EncryptByKey. This function decrypts your previously encrypted data.
To see that we have indeed created the intended key and to list all keys within the current database, we can use the following command, which selects all rows from the system catalog view named symmetric_keys:
SELECT * FROM sys.symmetric_keys;

Storing / Retrieving Encrypted Data
CREATE TABLE SymmetricTable(
Id INT IDENTITY(1,1) PRIMARY KEY,
PlainText NVARCHAR(100),
CipherText VARBINARY(MAX)
);
CREATE SYMMETRIC KEY CCKey
WITH ALGORITHM = TRIPLE_DES ENCRYPTION
BY CERTIFICATE TestCertificate;
-- must open the key if it is not already
OPEN SYMMETRIC KEY CCKey DECRYPTION BY PASSWORD = N'Password';
-- declare and set varible @str to store plaintext
DECLARE @str NVARCHAR(100)SET @str = N'Hello DESX';
-- encrypt @str and store in Table
INSERT INTO SymmetricTable (PlainText, CipherText)
VALUES ( @str, EncryptByKey(Key_GUID('CCKey'), @str));
-- select data from TempTable
SELECT * FROM SymmetricTable;
-- decrypt CipherText column and display it
SELECT CONVERT(NVARCHAR(100),
DecryptByKey(CipherText)) AS PlainText
FROM SymmetricTable;
-- close the key and drop it
CLOSE SYMMETRIC KEY CCKey;